how co2 laser works


CO2 lasers are a popular choice in the industrial sector, used in a wide range of applications, such as cutting, welding, etching, and drilling. This laser technology produces a powerful beam of light that is focused onto the workpiece, with high accuracy and precision. If you're curious about how CO2 laser works and want to learn more about its applications, then you've come to the right place. In this article, we'll discuss the basics of CO2 laser technology, its advantages, and limitations.

1. Introduction to CO2 Laser Technology

CO2 lasers are part of the gas laser family, which generates the laser light by exciting the gas molecules inside a glass tube. The CO2 laser consists of a sealed tube filled with a mixture of helium, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen gas, which is excited by an electrical discharge. The excited gas molecules release photons, which amplify and reflect back and forth inside the tube, creating a high-intensity beam of light. The beam is directed through a series of mirrors and lenses, which focus and shape it to the desired spot size and shape.

The wavelength of the CO2 laser beam is around 10600 nm, which is in the mid-infrared spectrum. This wavelength is ideal for materials that absorb the energy and melt or vaporize, such as metal, plastic, wood, and glass. However, it is not effective for materials that reflect or transmit the energy, such as transparent materials, water, or some types of ceramics.

2. Advantages of CO2 Laser Technology

CO2 lasers have several advantages over other types of lasers, such as solid-state, fiber, or diode lasers. Firstly, they have a high beam quality and coherence, which means they produce a well-defined spot with low divergence and high power density. This feature makes them suitable for applications that require precise cuts, welding, or surface treatments.

Secondly, CO2 lasers have a high efficiency and long lifetime, thanks to the gas mixture and sealed tube design. They can operate continuously for several hours or days, with minimal maintenance and downtime.

Thirdly, CO2 lasers can be easily adjusted and controlled, using various techniques such as pulse duration, frequency, or power modulation. This flexibility allows them to perform a wide range of tasks, from micromachining to large-scale cutting and welding.

3. Limitations of CO2 Laser Technology

However, CO2 lasers also have some limitations that should be considered before choosing them for a specific application. Firstly, their wavelength is not suitable for some materials, such as transparent or reflective ones, which can absorb or scatter the light. This limits their use in some industries, such as electronics, optics, or medical devices.

Secondly, CO2 lasers generate a lot of heat and produce a plasma cloud around the workpiece, which can cause thermal damage or contamination if not controlled properly. This requires using suitable cooling systems, gas flow rates, and protective gases, such as nitrogen or argon.

Thirdly, CO2 lasers have a relatively high initial cost and power consumption, compared to other types of lasers. This can be a barrier for small or medium-sized businesses, which may prefer cheaper or more versatile alternatives.

4. Applications of CO2 Laser Technology

Despite these limitations, CO2 lasers have a wide range of industrial applications, due to their high power, accuracy, and reliability. Some common examples are:

- Cutting: CO2 lasers can cut various materials, such as metals, plastics, composites, and ceramics, with high speed and precision. This makes them suitable for automotive, aerospace, and jewelry industries, among others.

- Welding: CO2 lasers can fuse similar or dissimilar metals, without adding any filler material or altering their properties. This makes them suitable for medical devices, electronics, and precision engineering, among others.

- Etching: CO2 lasers can remove a thin layer of material from a surface, without damaging the underlying layers. This makes them suitable for marking, engraving, or texturing, on materials such as glass, wood, or paper.

- Drilling: CO2 lasers can drill various materials, such as metals, ceramics, and plastics, with high speed and accuracy. This makes them suitable for aerospace, electronics, and medical implants, among others.

- 3D printing: CO2 lasers can selectively melt or sinter powder materials, such as metals, ceramics, and polymers, into a 3D structure. This makes them suitable for rapid prototyping, customization, and small-scale production, among others.

5. Future Developments of CO2 Laser Technology

As technology advances, so does the CO2 laser technology, with new developments and applications emerging. Some of the current trends and challenges in CO2 laser technology are:

- High-power lasers: CO2 lasers are being developed with even higher power and energy, which can cut thicker materials or improve the efficiency of certain processes.

- Trumicro-laser series: New fiber coupled CO2 lasers are becoming part of the portfolio of popular laser processing brands like Trumpf, opening up more processing alternatives for materials sensitive to the traditional CO2 wavelength while still taking advantage of the CO2's laser attributes.

- Integration with Robots: CO2 lasers can be integrated with robots, using vision systems and motion control, to perform complex tasks such as welding or assembly, with higher precision and flexibility.

- Environmentally friendly: CO2 lasers are being developed with more eco-friendly features, such as lower energy consumption, fewer emissions, and reduced waste.

- Multi-functional: CO2 lasers are being developed with multiple beams or wavelengths, allowing them to perform several functions at the same time, such as cutting and welding, or etching and drilling.


CO2 laser technology is a powerful and versatile tool for industry, with a wide range of applications and advantages. However, it also has some limitations and challenges, which require careful consideration and expertise. By understanding the basics of CO2 laser technology, its advantages and limitations, and its current and future developments, you can make an informed decision on whether it is the right choice for your business or project.


Professional Laser Marking Machine Manufacturer Since 2009. Correct Pack is a technology-based enterprise focusing on the design, development and production of marking and coding products, which are widely used in food, pharmaceutical, daily chemical, hardware and other industries.
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